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Acceptable Punishment Methods

The first and most effective way of punishment is additional work – you can additionally load the horse with work to make it clear that the more she stubbornly, the more she will have to work. The fact that she was taken to the stall after work should be perceived by the horse as an encouragement for the work done.
The second method of exposure is voice. Unlike dogs, horses are less responsive to the meaning of spoken words, but they are very sensitive to the intonation with which the words are spoken. A harsh word can indicate to the animal that it is doing something wrong.
In some cases, hand spanking is acceptable – for example, if your horse has a habit of biting. Many underestimate the danger of this habit, but it can lead to very serious injuries. Therefore, all manifestations of such behavior should be suppressed. A few sharp (without undue zeal) slaps on the nose at the time of an attempt to bite can relieve this habit or teach a horse with fear of trying to apply teeth. It is very interesting to watch the expression on the face of the horse, which has already been trained in this way, but which nevertheless leaves no hope for a successful meanness. and the painful inner struggle is evident: “Is a strong crack of pleasure worth or not worth a bit to bite the coach?”
What is worth remembering when punishing is that your actions should be immediate. If you decide to punish – do not hesitate. A horse should clearly indicate what it is doing wrong. Subsequently, she will not be able to explain the reason for the punishment. But, think over all your emergency actions before riding. He who does not control himself cannot control anyone else!

Promotions:

If the horse reacted to the affectionate word and pat on the neck as dogs do, the training process would be much simpler. But the horse is not inclined to actively respond to such methods of praise, which means that we must have something else in our stock.
As mentioned above, the promotion of food has serious limitations in practical application. Unfortunately, restrictions have all forms of promotion. Moreover, as a rule, all these forms require serious work on them in order to teach the horse to perceive them and associate them with praise for good work.

And yet, what may be ways to promote:

words and stroking – although an ineffective way, but has some effect. It can be used in working with foals at the moments when they take the first steps in training. At the same time, such incentives should be given with any correct actions, so that the foal from childhood assimilates that these actions can be praise.
When the tides are in a good mood, try to avoid grasping the foal with both hands around the neck – this can be regarded not as praise or approval, but as an aggressive and dangerous action and cause fright in the horse.
finishing work is perhaps the most effective and practical way to promote it. In this case, the encouragement can be the end of a direct working session, as well as work on a specific movement (element) with the transition to the next. The horse will very quickly learn to perceive the correct work with the subsequent rest or change of activity, which will motivate to achieve good results.
dainty – this method of encouragement is good to use for teaching various tricks. Tricks can be trained from the ground, i.e. “in hand”. In this case, a treat is a convenient way to “tell” the horse that she is on the right track. Masters of staged stunts during training actively use the delicacy as an incentive, while athletes manage in two of the above ways. Since, as already mentioned above, you begin to understand the limitations of the possibilities of this method by sitting in the saddle. In addition, feeding treats can make a beggar out of your horse and, as a result, the development of many bad habits (beating a hoof on the wall of a stall, a bear roll, etc.)
The main thing that should be remembered both with punishments and with rewards is that you should always be consistent in your actions and carefully evaluate situations for certain actions. All measures should be dosed. To do this, three main factors must be considered:

the nature and sensitivity of the particular horse with which the work takes place
level of training (training)
degree of willingness or reluctance to do the job.

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